Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей заочной формы обучения - страница 8


I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) и группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. Hurry up! I’m afraid by the time we get to the station the train will have already left. 2. The new American turbo-train has covered a 230-mile distance in 3 hours 15 minutes with 4 stops between Boston and New York. 3. By the time the train reached its destination Paul had made friends with many of his fellow-travelers. 4. For many years railway track has been laid and repaired by hard manual labor. Now this work is being done by means of up-to-date track machines and mechanisms.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. The car (to move – Past Continuous Active) very fast and the traffic cop (to stop – Past Indefinite Active) it for over-speeding. 2. Reinforced concrete and steel (to use – Present Continuous Passive) widely now for the construction of modern bridges. 3. They (to give – Past Indefinite Active) him no explanation why the experiment (to stop – Past Perfect Passive). 4. With the introduction of Centralized Traffic Control system the safety of railway operation (to increase – Present Perfect Active) greatly. 5. Newspaper correspondents (to arrive – Past Indefinite Active) at the aviation plant when the new passenger airplane (to test – Past Continuous Passive).

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого (Active or Passive).

1. After the reconstruction of this line track maintenance cost (will reduce; will be reduced) considerably. 2. A taxi (called; was called) 15 minutes ago; so we (are expecting; are being expected) it any moment. 3. Bill (kept; was kept) his word and arrived exactly at the time he (had promised; had been promised). 4. Great attention (pays; is paid) to ecological problems all over the world. 5. Be careful! The train (is approaching; is being approached) the station!

IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Drivers of express and fast trains must have a rest after 3 hours of work. 2. In New York a passenger may go by subway all day long for the same fare, if he only changes trains but do not go out of the station. 3. In Metro when the passengers get on the escalator, they should stand on the right so that people who hurry can run by on the left 4. The new automated control system will eliminate all types of accidents which can be caused by the driver’s error. 5. You need not hurry up; you may take a later suburban train.

V. Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.

Model: to read - a) reading – читая, читающий;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to use; 2) to make; 3) to develop; 4) to forget; 5) to burn; 6) to transport; 7) to receive; 8) to feel; 9) to study; 10) to carry; 11) to go; 12) to try; 13) to think; 14) to cover; 15) to speak.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Having packed our baggage, we hired a taxi and hurried to the airport. 2. Electric diagrams showing the routes of trains are installed in the London Underground. 3. The high-speed train running between Hiroshima and Kokura was entered in the Guinness Book of Records for the highest average speed – 261,8 km/h. 4. Carriage wheels, when passing over rail joints, produce the familiar sound “click-etty-click”. 5. While unloading the car we found a few broken boxes.

VII. Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания перепишите и переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a train (to control) by automatic engine-driver; 2) the (to obtain) result; 3) a (to destroy) bridge; 4) machinery (to produce) at our plant; 5) a (to propose) project; 6) equipment (to install) in the laboratory; 7) a (to test) method; 8) a terminal (to upgrade) last year; 9) a railway (to build) for high-speed passenger traffic; 10) a (to repair) section of track.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The first steam engine invented by James Watt was installed in a machine at a large mine to pump out the water. 2. The mechanic said that he had replaced the broken part of the engine. 3. When heated by sun, the rails become longer. 4. This engine radically differs both in construction and operation from the engine designed 5 years ago. 5. The Disneyland train called “the Excursion” was built especially to carry visitors through the Grand Canyon Diorama.

IX. Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The load weighs a hundred kilograms. 2. The windows in this car are made of unbreakable glass. 3. Each passenger must fasten the belt when the plane takes off or lands. 4. The Japanese company developed the first pocket-size color TV set. 5. Many bridges cross the river Thames in London. 6. In summer we are planning to go on a cruise along the coast of the Black Sea. 7. The accident has happened due to careless driving.

X. Перепишите и переведите текст.


A bridge is a structure built to cross some natural or artificial obstacles such as rivers, streets, railways and so on. First bridges had to be built out of the material close at hand*. In tropical jungles suspension bridges were made of long bamboo poles. In the places where there were many forests it was wood.

Simple suspension bridges were made by means of ropes and are still used in some countries. Two parallel ropes were suspended from rocks or trees on each bank of the river with a platform of woven mats laid across them. When the Spaniards reached South America, they found that the Incas** of Peru used suspension bridges made of 6 strong cables, four of which supported a platform and two cables served as handrails***.

In Middle Ages people constructed wooden beam type bridges. They were usually built on stone piers or wooden piles. Bridges of this type are still used in Japan and India.

With the beginning of railway construction in the 19th century there was a great demand for bridges and the railway companies had capital for building them. The first railway bridges were built of stone or brick. Later there appeared concrete and metal bridges. The first iron bridge crossed the river Severn in Great Britain.

Nowadays some people are experimenting with different unusual materials. One of them is paper. Nobody considers paper to be a very strong material. But paper-makers have another opinion. In order to prove it they built a paper bridge across a narrow canyon in Nevada. The bridge had a span of 32 ft. The designers calculated that it could safety span 80 ft. It took engineers only two months to design the bridge, to test and construct it.

For testing the engineers chose a truck which weighed 12,000 lb. This truck drove quite safely across the paper bridge. The engineers are sure that the bridge can take six times the truckload of 12,000 lb.

The bridge itself weighed 9,000 lb. So the structure was light enough to be laid into place by a helicopter.

Notes: *material close at hand – подручный материал

**Incas – Инки

***handrails – поручни

XI. Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. Were the first bridges made of steel?

2. Did people construct wooden beam type bridges in Middle Ages?

3. Was there a great demand for railway bridges in the 19th century?

4. Are people experimenting with different unusual materials for constructing bridges?

5. Do paper-makers consider paper to be a strong material?

6. Was a paper bridge built across the river?

7. Is paper a widely used material for the bridge construction?

8. Did it take engineers only 2 years to construct the bridge made of paper?

9. Did engineers choose a train for testing the paper bridge?

10. Can a paper bridge be laid into place by a helicopter?

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