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Методические указания разработаны старшим преподавателем кафедры английского языка естественных факультетов Резниковой С. Ю., преподавателем Гафаровой Ю. Ю. Рецензент - страница 2



Grammar


1 Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the part of the sentence in

bold.

^ Example: - He was proficient enough to work as a telegrapher full time. - Он был

достаточно опытным, для того чтобы работать телеграфистом полный рабочий день.


  1. An electric vote recorder is a device intended for use by elected bodies such as Congress to speed the voting process.

  2. Babbage was sent to a country school to recover from a life-threatening fever.

  3. Edison was invited to the White House to demonstrate the tin foil phonograph.

  4. The results were so breathtakingly original, that it took some time for the mathematical and engineering community to realize their significance.

  5. In the 1950s, Shannon continued his efforts to develop mechanisms that

emulated the operations of the human mind to solve problems.

  1. Tesla built an experimental station in Colorado Springs to experiment with high

frequency electricity and other phenomena.


  1. Translate paragraph 8 into Russian.


Speaking


  1. Sum up the text using the following key-points:

    1. Edison’s family background

    2. His main interests

    3. Spheres of science and research activity

    4. Major achievements

    5. Personality


2 Comment on Edison’s quotations using the following openings:

In fact…, I wouldn’t say so…, It seems to me…, In my opinion…, It’s a doubtful

statement.., That’s where I agree (disagree) with the author.


  1. He said that work was bringing out secrets of nature and applying them for the happiness of man.

  2. Self-educated, he knew the value of learning: “Education isn’t play. It is hard,

hard work. But it can be made interesting work..”

  1. “If you do not learn to think when you are young, you may never learn”.

  2. “Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.”

  3. “Hell, there are no rules here—we're trying to accomplish something.”


3 Work in groups of 3-4. Make a list of things you would like to know about

Thomas Edison. Choose one, find information and make a poster presentation. (Read instruction on page 33 task 2)


4 Thomas Edison wrote a test of general knowledge. Anyone who wanted a job for T Edison Inc. had to take this test. Do this test to check if Mr. Edison would have hired you for his team. Edison mental fitness test 1920. http://www.nps.gov/archive/edis/edifun/quiz/quizhome.htm


Points for reflection


  1. Have you learnt anything new about Edison from the text?

  2. Has anything surprised you?

  3. What facts were the most amazing?

  4. Did you like the text? Why? /Why not?


Unit 2 Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)


Before you start


1 You are going to read about life and work of the Italian inventor, Guglielmo Marconi. Before you read the text answer the following questions:

  1. Who is considered to be “the father of wireless telegraphy”?

  2. Have you ever heard about Guglielmo Marconi?

  3. What is he famous for?

  4. What field of science did he work in?




  1. Complete the table about Guglielmo Marconi:




things I know

things I’m not sure about

things I would like to know











Reading


1 Pay attention to the correct pronunciation of the following words:


Guglielmo

[´gʌglIəmə]

pursue

[ pə´sju: ]

Marconi

[ِِ ِ ma: ´kəunI ]

ether

[ ´I:θə]

Bologna

[´bɔu´lɔunjə]

determine

[ dItз:mIn ]

Wight

[´waIt]

curvature

[´kз:vət∫ə ]

Bournemouth

[´bɔ:nməθ ]

aerial

[´eərIəl]

Poldhu

[´pəuldhju: ]

successfully

[´sək´sesfəlI ]

Nobel

[ nəu´bel ]

launch

[ lɔ:nt∫ ]

Hertz

[ hз:ts ]

microwave

[´maIkrəweIv ]

Lodge

[ ´lɔʤ]

industry

[´IndəstrI ]


2 Read the text about Guglielmo Marconi and comment on the title.


^ A Radio Star

There cannot be many people who were “losers” at school, failed to get into university, and then went on to win a Nobel Prize for Physics. But at least one did, and with good reason: he made radio happen. A lack of formal education, high-powered family connections and an unstoppable will to succeed helped Guglielmo Marconi to transmit the first radio signal across the Atlantic and launch the wireless-

communications industry. Guglielmo Marconi was born at Bologna, Italy, on April 25,

1874, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi, an Italian country gentleman, and Annie




Рис. 3 Guglielmo

Marconi
Jameson. He was educated privately at Bologna, Florence and Leghorn. Marconi's education was patchy1, not to say poor. Primary school was a disaster, and he was 12 before he got into a secondary school in Florence where he did badly. The following year, he started to attend more congenial technical school, but Marconi’s progress was still very modest. He never qualified for higher education, even with the help of a private physics tutor. (1)

But even as a boy he took a keen interest in physical and electrical science and

studied the works of Maxwell, Hertz and others. In 1895 he began laboratory experiments at his father's country estate at where he succeeded in sending wireless signals over a distance of one and a half miles. (2)

In 1896 Marconi took his apparatus to England and later that year he was granted the world's first patent for a system of wireless telegraphy. He demonstrated his system successfully in London, and across the Bristol Channel, and in July 1897 formed The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company Limited (in 1900 re-named Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company Limited). In the same year he gave a demonstration to the Italian Government during which wireless signals were sent over a distance of twelve miles. In 1899 he established wireless communication between France and England across the English Channel. He erected permanent wireless stations at The Needles, Isle of Wight, at Bournemouth and later at the Haven Hotel, Poole, Dorset. (3)

Marconi’s first aim in perfecting communication without wires had been to break

the isolation of those at sea. The first life-saving possibilities of wireless communication were realized in 1899 when a wireless message was received from the East Goodwin lightship - which had been equipped with Marconi wireless apparatus. It had been rammed in dense fog by a steamship R.F. Matthews. A request was made for the assistance of a lifeboat. And in 1900 he took out his famous “7777”patent which documented a system for tuned coupled circuits and allowed simultaneous transmissions on different frequencies. Adjacent stations were now able to operate without interfering with one another and ranges were increased. On an historic day in December 1901, determined to prove that wireless waves were not affected by the curvature of the Earth, he used his system for transmitting the first wireless signals across the Atlantic between Cornwall, and Newfoundland, a distance of 2100 miles. (4)

Between 1902 and 1912 he patented several new inventions. In 1902, during a voyage in the American liner "Philadelphia", he first demonstrated "daylight effect" relative to wireless communication and in the same year patented his magnetic detector which then became the standard wireless receiver for many years. In December 1902 he transmitted the first complete messages to Poldhu from stations at Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, and later Cape Cod, Massachusetts. These early tests culminated in 1907 in the opening of the first transatlantic commercial service between Glace Bay and Ireland, after the first short-distance public service of wireless telegraphy had been established between Italy and Montenegro. In 1905 he patented his horizontal directional aerial and

in 1912 a "timed spark" system for generating continuous waves. (5)

During his war service in Italy from 1914 he returned to his investigation of short waves, which he had used in his first experiments. After further tests by his collaborators in England, an intensive number of trials, leading to the establishment of the beam system for long- distance telegraphy was conducted in 1923. Proposals to use this system as a means of Imperial communications were accepted by the British Government and the first beam station, linking England and Canada, was opened in 1926. (6)

In 1931 Marconi began research into the propagation characteristics of still shorter waves, resulting in the setting up in 1932 of the world's first microwave radiotelephone link between the Vatican City and the Pope's summer residence. Two years later he demonstrated his microwave radio beacon for ship navigation and in 1935, again in Italy, gave a practical demonstration of the principles of radar, the coming of which he had first foretold in a lecture to the American Institute of Radio Engineers in New York in 1922. (7)

He has been the recipient of honorary doctorates of several universities and many other international honors and awards, among them the Nobel Prize for Physics, which in 1909 he shared with Professor Karl Braun, the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts, the John Fritz Medal and the Kelvin Medal. He was decorated by the Tsar of Russia with the Order of St. Anne; the King of Italy created him a plenty of different ranks and titles as well. (8)

Marconi's 1909 Nobel Prize was an extraordinary surprise for him - unlike the physicist he shared it with, Ferdinand Braun - Marconi was not, by his own admission, any kind of scientist, or even much of an inventor. He did not really make any fundamental discoveries, and radio was mostly a matter of assembling parts created by other people. But the vision which was needed to see the possibilities of a new communication era, and the unstoppable will to pursue this objective were all his own. According to his own words, he made the whole world see the importance of his inventions, approve and, more importantly, buy them. (9)

Marconi moved to Rome in 1935, never to leave Italy again. He died in the early hours of 20 July 1937 aged 63 and his body was laid to rest in the mausoleum in the grounds of Villa Griffone. In a fitting tribute3, wireless stations throughout the world fell silent for 2 minutes and the ether4 was as silent as it had been before Marconi. (10)

He left behind him a world that even before his death had come to regard radio as a commodity2, not a miracle. Britain even had an infant television service, broadcast via Marconi equipment. He also left behind a legion of detractors5 who correctly pointed out that others, such as Lodge and the Russian Alexander Popov, had sent wireless messages before Marconi got his patent. It does not really matter. What Marconi doubtless did invent was an entirely new science-based industry. We are used to being told that some new technology will change the world. Marconi's is one of the few that

did. (11)

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

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-1обрывочный, незаконченный

- 2 предмет потребления

- 3 дань уважения

-4 эфир

-5 клеветники



  1. Read the text again and choose the correct option.

    1. Guglielmo Marconi was the first who

1) assembled radio .

2) invented radio.

3) transmitted the first radio signal.


    1. As a boy he liked to spend his free time

1) carrying out laboratory experiments.

2) studying with the help of a private tutor.

3) reading the works of famous scientists.


    1. He received higher education

1) with the help of a private physics tutor.

2) on his own but it was very hard.

3) He never had any kind of a university degree.


    1. He was granted his first patent for

1) magnetic detector.

2) a system of wireless telegraphy.

3) horizontal directional aerial.


    1. A lot of people didn’t think he was a great scientist because

1) he was not the only person who sent wireless messages.

2) he was not the first person who sent wireless messages.

3) he never sent any wireless messages.


    1. During his life Marconi considered himself to be

1) a successful industrialist and businessman.

2) a famous inventor.

3) an outstanding physicist.


  1. Answer the following questions:

    1. What was Marconi’s family background?

    2. What kind of education did he get?

    3. What sciences was he interested in as a boy?

    4. What famous physicists influenced him greatly?

    5. What was his first patent invention?

    6. What important discovery did he make in 1900?

    7. What were his main inventions and patents?

    8. What was his attitude to his own Nobel Prize?


Vocabulary


1 Use the affixes in the table to form adjectives from the words below:

history, success, commerce, intensity, continue, practice, direction, nation, physics, electricity, ridicule, vary, remark, continent, expense, structure, response, fame, danger, stress, charity, create, event, break, believe, explosion, magnet


-able/-ible

-al

-ic

-ful

-ive

-ous

unstoppable


historical

public

successful

intensive

continuous




  1. Match the words in column A with the words in column B to make compounds which you come across in the text.




A

  1. day

  2. science

  3. wireless

  4. long

  5. radio

  6. high

B

  1. based

  2. powered

  3. light

  4. telephone

  5. distance

  6. communication


Use the words below to make word combinations with the compounds:

effect family telegraphy industry(x2) link


  1. Cross out an odd word in each line:

  1. to conduct: an experiment, a baby, an interview, an orchestra

  2. to erect: a station, a leg, a tent, an institution.

  3. short: waves, building, man, speech.

  4. fundamental: mistake, distinction, discovery, hotel.

  5. to assemble: a car, an army, forces, flowers.

  1. Look at the following words that often come together and add at least 3 words of your own to each group. Consult the dictionary if necessary.

  1. to attend: a university, a meeting, ...

  2. to launch: a campaign, a satellite, ...

  3. to send: a telegram, a volunteer, ...

  4. to decorate: a dress, a room, …

  5. to establish: a company, contacts, …


5 Complete the sentences with prepositions if necessary

  1. He tried to qualify … higher education with the help of a private tutor.

  2. Marconi was granted his first patent … a system of wireless communication.

  3. From an early childhood he took a keen interest … physical and electrical science

  4. First he succeeded … sending wireless signals over a distance of one mile.

  5. Marconi was decorated … many international honors and awards.

  6. His tests culminated … the opening of the first transatlantic commercial service.


6 Give English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

непрекращающееся желание преуспеть; передать радио сигнал; обучался частным образом; проявлял острый интерес к; система беспроводного телеграфа; основал постоянную станцию; возможности беспроводной коммуникации; был оснащен ; антенна; сотрудники; радиомаяк; получатель почетных международных наград; был награжден; фундаментальное открытие; преследовать цель; создать новую отрасль промышленности, опирающаяся на научных знаниях

Grammar


1 Divide the following sentences into two parts according to the model. Translate the original sentence.


Model: Lodge and Alexander Popov had sent wireless messages before Marconi got

his patent. - First Lodge and Alexander Popov sent wireless messages. Then

Marconi got his patent. – Лодж и Александр Попов отправляли

беспроводные сообщения до того, как Маркони получил свой патент.


  1. The opening of the first transatlantic commercial service between Glace Bay and Ireland took place after the first shorter-distance public service of wireless telegraphy had been established between Italy and Montenegro.

  2. The military understood the usefulness of remote-controlled vehicles after Tesla’s patents had expired.

c) He gave a practical demonstration of the principles of radar, the coming of which he had first foretold in New York in 1922.

d) It was widely discussed that Nikola Tesla refused the Nobel Prize because Marconi had already received his.

e) He left behind him a world that even before his death had come to regard radio as a commodity, not a miracle.

f) In 1877 Edison made a recording on a little machine which he had invented.


2 Translate paragraphs 10-11 into Russian.


Speaking


1 Sum up the text using the following key-points:

  1. Family background

  2. Education (degrees)

  3. Areas of scientific and research activity

  4. Major achievements


2 Comment on the statements:

  1. Guglielmo Marconi is one of the most prominent inventors of the 20th century.

  2. Guglielmo Marconi made radio happen.

  3. Guglielmo Marconi is just a successful industrialist and businessman.


3 Do you agree with the following quotations on Marconi’s work?

a) “… the emission and reception of signals by Marconi by means of electric

oscillations is nothing new. In America, the famous engineer Nikola Tesla carried the same experiments in 1893.” Alexander Popov

b) “In a few days time, Marconi won't just hit the ground running; it'll take off as Europe's brightest technology company.” George Simpson


4 Work in groups of 3-4. Make a list of things you would like to know about Guglielmo Marconi. Choose one, find information and make a poster presentation. (Read instruction on page 33 task 2)


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