«Общие вопросы гигиены и экологии»


Gorky national medical university, Donetsk


The module 1st «General questions of hygiene and ecology»

Manual for the students of medical faculties

The module is 1 «General questions of hygiene and ecology»

Rich in content module «Introduction into the hygiene and ecology»

ББК 51.2 Я7+52.64Я7

УДК 613+577.4 (075.8)



Гребняк Н.П. доктор медицинских наук, профессор кафедры гигиены (Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М.Горького);

Ермаченко А.Б., доктор медицинских наук, профессор, зав. кафедрой гигиены ПДО (Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М.Горького);

Рекомендовано Ученым Советом Донецкого национального медицинского университета им. М.Горького как учебное пособие для студентов медицинских факультетов высших учебных заведений ІV уровня аккредитации (протокол № 6 от 28.08.2008 г.).

Авторский коллектив

^ А.Н. Бессмертный, А.И. Клименко, Ю.С. Чмихун

(Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М.Горького)

Г46 Гигиена и экология человека. Модуль 1 «Общие вопросы гигиены и экологии»: учебное пособие для студентов медицинских факультетов высших учебных заведений ІV уровня аккредитации. /Под ред. А.И.Клименко(английская версия).

Учебное пособие подготовлено коллективом кафедры гигиены и экологии Донецкого национального медицинского университета в соответствии с требованиями обучения Болонской системы модуля 1 «Общие вопросы гигиены и экологии». В учебном пособии изложены основы изучения закономерностей влияния внешней среды на здоровье человека, рассмотрены методы изучения факторов окружающей среды по следующим разделам: введение в гигиену и экологию, гигиеническое значение окружающей среды и методы её изучения, гигиена воды и водоснабжения, гигиена почвы, гигиена питания, гигиена труда, гигиена детей и подростков. Каждая тема включает цели обучения, программу, исходный уровень знаний-умений, структуру и содержание практических занятий по разделам и последовательность выполнения студентами самостоятельной работы на занятиях. Приведены графы логической структуры тем и алгоритмы.

Для англоязычных студентов медицинских факультетов высших медицинских учебных заведений ІV уровня аккредитации.

© А.Н. Бессмертный, А.И. Клименко, Ю.С. Чмихун


Topicality of theme.

The human organism is exposed to influence of great number of continuously changing environment factors. This, foremost, factors of surrounding, including production environment (chemical, physical, biological, psychophysiological), and also socio-economic conditions of life.

Study of living conditions influencing on a health of population, development of measures on the prophylaxis of diseases, to strengthening and saving of health require from the doctor abilities to assess action of the indicated factors on human organism . At the same time, it is necessary to underline importance of complex study of influencing of environment factors and necessity of application, except the hygienic methods of research, wide arsenal of other sciences research methods.

A physician should be able to choose the adequate methods of researches of both factors of environment and reactions of organism on their influence, to assess the given results and substantiate concrete measures for removal of possible harmful environment influence.

Therefore knowledge of research methods isnecessary in practical activity of physician, namely during conducting of prophylactic measures among the population.

Purpose general: to be able to use the most widespread methods of researches of environment factors and organism reactions on their influence. To be able to determine the order of educational-research work (ERWS) implementation.


Purposes of initial level of knowledge-abilities:

  1. To determine the necessity of co-operation of organism and environment assessmen for saving of human health.

  2. To choose adequate methods for hygienic assessment of environment.

  3. To choose the adequate methods of researches for assessment of reactions of organism on influence of factors of environment.

  4. To choose devices for conducting of hygienic researches.

  5. To be able to define the order of the ERWS implementation.

  1. To be able to apply the physical methods of researches for the study of factors of environment (chair of biophysics).

  2. To be able to apply the bacteriological methods of researches (chair of microbiology).

  3. To be able to apply the physiological methods of the researches ABP, heart rate and other (chair of physiology).

  4. To be able to apply the chemical methods of researches (chair of chemistry).

For verification of level of mastering of initial knowledge-abilities decide next tasks for self-training and self-control.

Task 1.

During medical examination of miners it is necessary to determine a functional state of the cardiovascular system.

What physiological indexes is it necessary to define?

1. Breathing frequency.

2. Heart rate.

3. Temperature of body.

4. Temperature of skin.

5. Spirometry.

Task 2.

With the purpose of prophylaxis of nosocomial infections disinfection of air is conducted in the chamber of new-born.

Specify the method of assessment of efficiency of sanitization of air.

  1. Chemical.

  2. Descriptive.

  3. Bacteriological.

  4. Biochemical.

  5. Experimental.

Task 3.

Welding works are conducted in the educational workshop PTS. In this connection it is necessary to assess the working conditions of teenagers.

Choose a research method for assessment of air environment.

  1. Physical.

  2. Chemical.

  3. Clinical-biochemical.

  4. Experimental.

  5. Sanitary-statistical.

Task 4.

After the use of milk in a school dining-room dyspepsia disorders appeared at the set of students.

What researches must be conducted for assessment of quality of milk?

  1. Bacteriological.

  2. Organoleptic.

  3. Physical.

  4. Virology.

  5. Helmintology.

Task 5.

In an educational room for drawing it is necessary to measure luminosity.

Choose a method for assessment of illumination.

  1. Moisture metering.

  2. Luxmetery.

  3. Actinometry.

  4. Psychrometry.

  5. Anemometry.

Standards of answers for the tasks of control of initial level. Task 1-2, task 2-3. Decide the other tasks independently.

Information necessary for forming of initial level of knowledge-abilities can be found in the following textbooks:

1. Remizov A.N. Medical and biological physics: Textbook. -М.: High school, 1999. - P. 15-17.

2. Agapov B.T. Laboratory practical work on physics. -М.: High school, 1992. - P. 81-86, 136-143, 223-228, 233-343.

3. Pokrovsky V.M.., Korotko G.F.. Physiology of man: Textbook.-М.: Medicine, 1998. - P. 9-14.

4. Yarigina V.N.. Biology. М.: High school, 1999. t. 2. - P. 218-221.


After mastering of necessary knowledge you pass to the study of literature on a theme:

  1. Hygiene and ecology. Textbook. / Edited by V.G.Bardov. - Winnitca: New Book, 2006. - P. 14-33.

  2. Dacenko I.I., Gabovich R.D. Prophylactic medicine. General hygiene with bases of ecology: Manual. - Kiev: Health, 1999. - P. 9-21.

  3. Dacenko I.I., Denisuk O.B., Doloshickiy S.L. General hygiene: Manual for practical studies. -Lvov: World, 2001. - P. 6-23.

  4. Lectures on theme.

5. Count of logical structure (suppl. 1).

Additional literature:

1. Gabovich R.D., Poznanskiy S.S., Shahbazan G.H.. Hygiene: Textbook. -Kiev: High school, 1983. - P. 8 -11.

2. Rumancev G.I., Kozlova T.A., Vishnevskaya E.P.. Guidance to laboratory studies on a general hygiene. - Moscow: Medicine, 1980. - P. 5-12.

Theoretical questions, which implementation of having a special purpose types of activity is possible on the basis of.

1. Object, maintenance and tasks of hygiene, relationship with other disciplines.

2. Co-operation of organism and environment. Influencing of social and natural factors on a health populations.

3. Description of maintenance of basic sections of hygienic science and basic methods of the researches applied in a hygiene.

Orientation basis of activity

After mastering of the transferred learn an algorithm (suppl. 2).

For verification of mastering of material you are suggested to decide the following tasks:

Tasks of teaching type

Task 1.

The cases of nosocomial infections became more frequent in medical establishment. There was a necessity in conducting of researches on establishment of reasons and development of measures on the improvement of stay condition of patients.

Choose the method of hygienic researches.

  1. Sanitary-statistical.

  2. Physiological.

  3. Model experiment.

  4. Instrumental-laboratory.

  5. Hygienic experiment.

Task 2.

In the apartment of nursery school for assessment of microclimate it is necessary to measure the rate of movement of air.

Choose a device for determination of rate of movement of air.

  1. Katathermometer.

  2. Cup anemometer.

  3. Vane anemometer.

  4. Luxmeter.

  5. Actinometer.

Task 3.

Working workshops on production of chemical reagents appealed to the physician with complaints about a weakness, crabbiness, headache, disorder of sleep.

Choose a research method for assessment of reaction of organism on influence of chemical factor.

  1. Medical inspection with the use of clinico-biochemical researches.

  2. Microbiological.

  3. Sanitary inspection.

  4. Sanitary description.

  5. Sanitary-statistical.

Task 4.

In town A. growth of infectious morbidity is exposed.

Specify the method of study of infectious morbidity.

  1. Epidemiology.

  2. Hygienic experiment.

  3. Sanitary examination.

  4. Instrumental.

  5. Sanitary description.

Task 5.

For assessment of microclimate humidity and temperature of air was measured in the chamber of cardiologic department.

Choose a device for determination of humidity of air.

  1. Hydrometer.

  2. Psychrometer.

  3. Actinometer.

  4. Barograph.

  5. Thermograph.

Task 6.

In a settlement A. the cases of failures on a chemical combine with the emissions in the atmosphere of toxic matters became more frequent. Frequency of cases of diseases by acute bronchitis grew among the population.

Determine the grounds for the necessity of study of factors of environment.

  1. Presence in the settlement of chemical combine.

  2. Frequent failures on a chemical combine.

  3. Emissions of toxic matters in atmospheric air.

  4. High concentration of toxic matters.

  5. Increase of frequency of cases of diseases.

Standards of answers: task 1-4, task 2-1. Decide the other tasks independently.

Short methodical guidance to conducting of studies

After verification and correction of initial level of knowledge on a theme students visit a chair, its history, scientific directions, methodical approaches of hygienic researches are mastered as evaluated by influence of factors of environment on an organism. See the methods of hygienic researches devices which are used for hygienic researches, basic and additional literature recommended for the study of course of hygiene and ecology. Implementations of educational-research work of students see a subject order. Instructing by rules of accident prevention on studies is conducted. The form of conduct of protocols of practical studies is made. On a finishing stage the final test control and work out the totals of studies is conducted.

Technological card of practical studies


Time, in min.

Equipment of studies, teaching mean

Place of conducting and character of studies


Verification and correction of initial level


Test tasks

Laboratory of department, seminar -


Independent work

Count of logical structure, algorithm


2.1. study of the methods applied in a hygiene;


2.2. study of devices which are used for hygienic researches;



2.3. acquaintance with the EWRS themes and order of implementation.



Analysis and correction of conclusions.



Final test control and work out the totals of studies.


Test tasks

Graph of logical structure of the theme:

"^ Methods of investigation, applied in hygiene. Organization of students academic-investigating activity (SAIA). Safety engineering on a department."

Suppl. 2


choice of research methods, applied in a hygiene,

and determinations of ASAI fulfillment order

Determination of goals and tasks

sanitary-hygienic researches

Choice of methods for environment and reactions of organism research

Researches results assessment

Recommendations directed to optimization of environment working out


Topicality of theme. Ultraviolet part of sun spectrum has the large physiological value. Especially important natural ultraviolet irradiation for child's organism. For indemnification of ultraviolet insufficiency the artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation are widely used (UVR). Biological action of ultraviolet rays has both biogenic and abiogenic constituent, that depends on spectral composition of radiation and his intensity. And it, in same queue, determines the necessity of strict dosage of irradiation taking into account the individual features of organism and presence of contra-indications at the UV-radiation (UVR) use in prophylactic and medical purpose, and also observances of hygienic requirements at the use of sources of short-wave UVR for sanitization of objects of environment and on production for the prophylaxis of possible unfavorable influence of radiation on the organism of man.

Purpose general: To be able to conduct hygienic assessment of ultraviolet radiation and develop recommendations for the UV-insufficiency prophylaxis and surplus action on the organism of man, and also assess efficiency of sanatsyy of objects of environment.


Goals of initial level:

1. Master the method of assessment of the UV-radiation intensity with the use of photochemistry method.

2. Substantiate of UV-radiation artificial sources application according to spectrum of radiation for prophylactic, medical aims and for environmental sanitation.

3. Assess efficiency of bactericidal action of short-wave UV-radiation.

4. Forecast the possible unfavorable consequences of the insufficient and surplus action UV-radiation on the organism of man and recommend preventive guidelines.

To knon how to

1. the features of biological action of ultraviolet radiation (department of biological physics)

2. Apply the bacteriological methods of research (department of microbiology)

To check knowledge of the given material do the following tasks.


The ultraviolet includes the interval of waves of long from 10 to 400 nm.

Select an interval which characterizes ultraviolet rays of sun spectrum upon terrene:

  1. 400 - 200 nm;

  2. 380 - 180 nm;

  3. 400 - 290 nm;

  4. 320 - 180 nm;

  5. 400 - 100 nm.


What is the percentage of ultraviolet changes during atmosphere of Earth penetration as:

  1. Decresed from 10 % to 5 %;

  2. Increased from 1 % to 5 %;

  3. Does not change;

  4. Decresed from 5 % to 1 %;

E. Increased from 3 % to 5 %.


Select cohort for which the «sun starvation» on set fall most earlier for as:

  1. Debilitated children;

  2. Inhabitants of Polarity.

  3. Inhabitants of mountain;

  4. Townsmen cohort;

  5. Villagers cohort.


Which device is used for determination of intensity of ultraviolet radiation by a photo-electric (physical) method as:

  1. Pyranometer;

  2. luxmeter;

  3. Ufimeter;

  4. Actinometer;

  5. Spectrograph.


Environmental sanitation better to use by an ultraviolet radiation as:

  1. Interval A (wave-length 400-320 nm);

  2. Interval A and B (wave-length 400-280 nm);

  3. Interval B (wave-length 320-280 nm);

  4. Interval C (wave-length less than 280 nm );

  5. All interval of UV-spectrum.

Standards of answers of tasks of control of initial level: Task 1 - C;

Task 2 - D. Make solution the other tasks independently.

Information which is needed for forming of knowledges-abilities can be found in the following textbooks:

  1. Коротяев А.И., Бабичев С.А. Medical microbiology and virology. - Saint Petersburg: Special literature, 1998. - P. 370 - 384.

Additional literature:

  1. Ремизов А.Н. Physics. -М.: High school, 1982. - P. 320 - 337.

  2. Ярыгина В.Н. Biology.-М.: High school, 1999. T. 2.- P. 210 - 221.

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